A while ago I talked about different views on how advertising works. Personally, I’ve never believed in a single theory, people evaluate different products differently. They also evaluate products differently depending on where in their product evaluation cycle they are. So, for instance, household cleaners are advertised informatively, while facial soap is sold with brand ads. Car dealers prefer informative advertising while car manufacturers prefer brand advertising.
One of these so-called ‘integrative models’ is the FCB grid, developed at Foote, Cone & Belding (now Draftfcb) and written about by Richard Vaughn*. This model divides goods and services into four categories, along two axes: the Think/Feel axis, and the High Involvement/Low Involvement axis.
Vaughn makes interesting generalizations about how marketers should address the consumer decision process in each of these four quadrants**. But those are sort of boring, so I overlaid my vague and general idea as to what marketing approaches work, instead.
On the internet, WOM is social media marketing. Direct Marketing is lead-gen and email. And sales promotion is couponing (among other strategies.)
I think this framework is also somewhat helpful in thinking about the various ways to help consumers find the right product (as opposed to selling it to them.)
Personally, I’d like to see a lot more articulation on this last. Helping consumers find the right product will turn out to be a lot more fruitful over the next ten years than figuring out better ways to sell them one.
* Vaugh, Richard (1980), “How Advertising Works: A Planning Model,” Journal of Advertising Research, 20 (September/October), 27-30; and (1986), “How Advertising Works: A Planning Model Revisited,” Journal of Advertising Research, 26 (January/February), 27-30. Sorry, no link.
** Later refined by Rossiter and Percy: Rossiter, John R., Larry Percy, and Robert J. Donovan (1991), “A Better Advertising Planning Grid,” Journal of Advertising Research, 31 (October/November), 11-21. Again, no link. Academic journals suck.